Although at the end of November INDEC released what it called the “final results” of the 2022 census, data that themselves came with the delay this medium had warned about, the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses on Monday added a missing slide to the published report. Recap 2 months ago: The section related to Internal migrations and migrationwhich as expected shows a Role At the origin of the population who arrived in the country in recent years.
Symbolically and compared to the 2010 census, the number of immigrants today has only decreased 4.2% of the total population Reported in (one might say) the “wrong final census” (46,234,830 total, of whom nearly 2 million were immigrants), it appears that Reflection of the crisis In escalation, in this Argentina resistance.
At the same time, this cannot be denied Low percentage The number of immigrants, as the Census report itself analyzes, has been continuous and represents a trend for more than 100 years, when there was a historical peak recorded in 1914, which reported a proportion of foreigners seven times higher than the current proportion, which is located in Historic apartment.
But like him 4.2% Enrolled in the post-pandemic census replicates the number of immigrants from the 2001 census and is down just 0.2% compared to 2010, and the novelty is undoubtedly something else: the shift in population Regions of origin From those who, from other countries, decided to settle here.
As expected, the highest proportion of immigrants from non-neighboring Latin American countries is found in Argentina's history, or at least in those that can be reviewed since 1869, when the first national census was conducted.
On the platform of these expatriates VenezuelaIt is the third country that provided the largest number of immigrants to Argentina in the past decade, after Paraguay and Bolivia, and it is a historical “priority” in this sense.
In percentages (always within, to be precise, 1,941,862 foreigners were registered), the proportion of arrivals from Paraguay was 27%, three percentage points lower than in the 2010 census, while – on the contrary – an upward trend was recorded for this population; While the percentage in Bolivia was 17.5%, two percentage points lower than it was in 2010.
The long-awaited data for those concerned about demographics was the number of Venezuelans who would emerge from the national census, people who, at least as viewed in the metropolitan area, They went into mass exile They entered, unfortunately, into a very dramatic social and economic crisis, but with no real chance of predicting it, they entered into another.
According to Indec, they understand 8.4% Of the total number of immigrants. Any more than 163,000 people. The composition of the group, unlike other groups in the country (but with a behavior similar to that of Colombians), consists of young people in their twenties, thirties and forties. Few (compared to those who come from neighboring countries) are children or teenagers, and few (compared to those from Chile or Uruguay) are over fifty.
To complete the “top ten,” Peru ranked fourth for immigrants, followed by Chile, Uruguay, Italy, Brazil, Spain and Colombia.
As for the third place that Venezuela occupies today, it must be said that it is a place that presents surprises. While Chile occupied it in 2010, Italy did so in 2001.
Census and long-distance migrants
It is striking that 23.5% of those arriving from the region not contiguous with Argentina appear Almost double Compared to 2010, when that group represented only 12.5% of immigrants. Continuing the increases, the 2.4% of foreigners arriving from the “rest of the world” (as the report calls those arriving from anywhere except Latin America and Europe) also saw a slight increase of 0.2%, which is a negligible fact. If it weren't for the fact that it is Reverses the downward trend Which has been seen since the 1970s.
In the opposite direction, attention is drawn to immigrant groups that have shrunk (always in percentage terms). What has become evident, with rampant inflation in recent years, is the population of neighboring countries, which, however, constitute the majority group (65.9%) of the total number of immigrants, although the proportion has decreased by three percentage points compared to 2010. .
But, in this sense, the weight data represents an unprecedented change in trend, because for the first time since this demographic statistic was compiled, those coming from neighbouring countries The percentage was lower than in the previous record. The number was always increasing, but now it has decreased.
Another loss is added, this time among the European population who decided to come to the country. In percentage terms, it has been reduced to half of what was reported in 2010. The downward trend has been seen since 1914, but the move is not as surprising as in this record, when this group rose from 16.5% to 8.3% in 2022. .
Educational level and migrations within the country according to the 2022 census
The province and city of Buenos Aires have The highest percentage of immigrantsCompared to other governorates. In fact, half of the foreigners registered in the census are in the territory of Buenos Aires, while the proportion of foreigners registered in CABA is approximately 22%. Mendoza follows with a relatively ridiculous number, less than 3.4%.
As for the educational level, it is not suddenly different from that of the general population. While the percentage of these They finished high school Almost identical (a quarter of both residents) and residents “Not even finishing high school.” It is 45%, i.e. five percentage points lower than that recorded among immigrants (50.5%). This generates that in the third item, which is “Top or incomplete university” There is also a slightly higher figure for local residents: 29.8% versus 24.4%.
Aside from international arrivals, the report now released also gives a snapshot of inter-provincial movements. It must be remembered that the census for the first time was “de jure” and not “de facto”, so it was consulted according to the usual place of residence of immigrants. People, regardless of where they are at the time of the census strategy.
The broad stroke of these data suggests roughly so 8 million people They stated that they lived in a different jurisdiction than the one in which they were born. 17.5% of the population resides in private homes. Women in this case are 10% more likely than men.
Where do most of these people live? Neuquén, San Luis, Rio Negro and Chubut have high percentages (between 20% and 30%), but the two on the podium are Santa Cruz, with 41.8%, and Tierra del Fuego. In the “End of the World” province, 54.5% of the population was born in another part of Argentina.
In conclusion, will there be more reports like the one released on Monday or is it now “final”? From Indec reported that There will be more. “Within the final results series, specific topics such as education, gender identity, health or social security continue to be published.”