What modern architects are learning from the Taj Mahal to cool buildings without air conditioning

The architectural sign of the Taj Mahal can be immediately noticed upon entering Microsoft office in Noida, North India. Covered in ivory white and dotted with beautiful arches and “jali” (perforated mesh screens), the desk is a visual ode to the world. The grandeur of the Taj Mahal As a state-of-the-art workplace.

Rays of light penetrate complex screens jaalicreating a great effect of lighting and depth. Combined with low-energy lights, this architectural feature helps keep the building’s carbon footprint low and is one of the reasons the office receives a platinum rating from Leed (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), the highest sustainability certification from the US Green Building Council.

term jaali, meaning network, is used in Central and South Asia. Pieces of marble or red sandstone with decorative motifs, It was a distinctive architectural feature in India between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. The exquisitely carved jalis of the Taj Mahal, made in Agra in the mid-17th century, create a harmonious blend of steel and blank, concave and convex, lines and curves, light and shadow.

The Hawa Mahal, or ‘Wind Palace’, built by Rajput rulers in Jaipur in 1799, has 953 lattice windows designed to let in a gentle breeze. In addition to adding an artistic touch to buildings, these mesh screens “Allow air to circulateProtect [los edificios] “Sunlight provides a curtain of privacy,” says Yatin Pandya, an architect who specializes in heritage preservation and author of several books on sustainable design.

Now in his Searching for sustainable cooling solutionsArchitects are revitalizing this ancient design to build comfortable, low-carbon buildings.

The construction sector has a large Climate problem. Building emissions reached their highest level in 2019, accounting for 38% of global carbon dioxide emissions.

Building cooling can be energy intensive, and the number of cooling units is expected to increase Air conditioning to more than triple worldwide by 2050Like all of India and China today, it consumes as much electricity as all of India and China today. At the same time, heat waves are getting longer and more intense around the world.

The Taj Mahal (Photo by Pawan Sharma/AFP)Pawan Sharma – Agence France-Presse

Faced with this challenge, some architects are drawing inspiration from previous solutions, including the traditional jali. “[Sirve] like An ecological answer to the problems of sustainable cooling and ventilationSays Sachin Rastogi, architect and founding director of ZED Lab in Delhi, which specializes in zero-zero buildings.

See also  A Miami influencer defrauded the US government of $1.5 million with the help of COVID

Passive cooling technologies and building envelopes (which help separate the interior of the building from the external environment) provide significant thermal comfort by lowering the interior temperature, eliminating the need for air conditioning, which can generate energy savings of up to 70%.

Al-Jaali cuts off direct heat from entering the building Divide the total area of ​​a typical window into a series of small holes. In a traditional jali, the holes are about the same size as the thickness of marble or sandstone, says Pandya. “This thickness is just right reduce direct glare of sunlight, while allowing diffused lighting,” he adds.

Jaali’s cooling function is based on the Venturi effect in a similar way to an air conditioning unit. “As air passes through the holes, it increases in speed and penetrates farther. Due to the small openings, the air is compressed and when released it cools downexplains the architect.

The advent of modern cooling technologies has restricted Jali’s use, but “global warming concerns have shifted the focus to reviving it,” he said. “Traditional architectural forms have proven their performance in combating environmental conditions.”

from the complex Times I-City in Foshan, Chinato the hotel Nagara in Cap d’Agde, FrancePasses through Cordoba Hospital, Spainlattice facades were published in modern buildings of Adjusting natural light, optimizing energy consumption and providing comfort.

Perforated facades are becoming popular globally with architects who focus on sustainable envelopes‘,” says Ayesha Patul, a researcher in sustainable building design at the University of Nottingham in the UK.

A 2018 evaluation by Batool of three-screen shading systems found that jaali outperformed both all-glass facades and brise-Soleil facades, which deflect sunlight.

See also  How are the desperate attempts to save the permanent given

“Jaali screens improve thermal and visual comfort for the building’s occupants,” says Patul. “It is important to learn from traditional architectural styles without overgeneralizing or perfecting their performance.”

Newspaper Headquarters Punjabi Kesari in New Delhi It fuses traditional Indian architecture with contemporary design features. Building Wrapped with white concrete facade A glass-reinforced perforated panel evokes the traditional Galle screen, to improve natural lighting, reduce heat, and increase cross ventilation, says Britta Knobel Gupta, co-founder of the award-winning Studio Symbiosis that designed it.

“Dual Screen Jali It lowers the temperature of the outside air in front of the glass to let in cooler airbehaves like a chimney,” says Noble Gupta. “This reduces the load on the air conditioner.”

The project used digital simulation to create different pore patterns for each wall, depending on the amount of sunlight it receives. The north facade, for example, has an opacity of 81%, compared to 27% opacity on the south side. Al Jali also adds that it helps the building to naturally achieve the necessary level of illumination, ensuring that no artificial lighting is required during the day.

Other countries also take note of the benefits of the Diaspora. The Hispasat Satellite Observation Center in Madrid, Spain, with the aim of controlling solar radiation and increasing indoor comfort. Its grid provides three different densities of openings, which help filter light and reduce glare from the sun, says Juan Herreros, architect and co-founder of Estudio Herreros, which designed the building.

“[El] The degree of perforation varies with lighting needs for comfort and the need to dissipate sunlight.” He adds that the one-meter gap between the building and the lattice produces a shady and airy effect.”The space between the two skins acts as a pathway for ventilation“.

Technological developments have made Jali more and more dynamic. From mimetics, the science of developing non-biological systems inspired by nature, Jaali’s dynamic interfaces are intended to mimic the methods of thermal adaptation found in nature.

See also  Storm Elsa's movements weaken across the southeastern US after at least one person was killed in Florida

Inspired by human skin texturethese interfaces help Buildings breathe through thousands of pores.

Al Bahar Towers, designed by Aedas Architects, rises under the blazing Abu Dhabi sun with a responsive ‘smart’ facade that opens and closes based on temperature. The design is inspired by al-Jaali and his version in the Arab world, the mashrabiya, which generally uses wood.

The Taj Mahal, in Agra, India.  (AP Photo/Pawan Sharma, file)
The Taj Mahal, in Agra, India. (AP Photo/Pawan Sharma, file)

“The Mashrabiya reduces the amount of direct sunlight on the building by about 20%,” says John Lyle, a former director of engineering consultancy Arup, who advised on the opening mechanism. “The automatic mashrabiyas open and close in response to the movement of the sun to allow indirect natural light to enter the building.”

The dynamic screen is located two meters from the building and is programmed to It responds to the movement of the sun to reduce glare and improve daylight penetration. As the sun moves, the entire Mashrabi moves with it to provide shade. The design resulted in a 40% saving in carbon emissions, according to Arup.

Although the Jaali area is experiencing a renaissance, there are concerns about whether holes in the facades protect residents from pests and insects.

In addition, mobile or kinetic interfaces often involve time-consuming and expensive design and manufacturing processes. Using traditional building materials, such as marble, for modern construction may not be feasible or cost-effective, and one material may not suit all climates. Most Jalis today are made of MDF, concrete, brick, wood, stone, PVC, or plaster.

sitting too They differ in their performance in different climatesWhich means that the screen design must depend on the weather conditions: There is no one-size-fits-all solution.

Despite these limitations, Jali helps create energy-efficient buildings by providing natural lighting and ventilation, says Rastogi. “The traditional jali technology is the key to creating an architecture that is both environmentally and economically viable,” he asserts. “Sustainability should not be an addition but a way of life.”

* Fazza Tabassum Azmi

Freddie Dawson

"Beer specialist. Award-winning tv enthusiast. Bacon ninja. Hipster-friendly web advocate. Total social media junkie. Gamer. Amateur writer. Creator."

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Back to top