Researchers investigate chances of detecting lung cancer with breath test

Early detection is difficult due to the lack of clinical features and specific biomarkers.

Louis Ochoa

June 22, 2022 | | reading time: 5 minutes

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve survival in patients with lung cancer. Photo: shutterstock.

A study published in The Lancet’s eClinicalMedicine suggests breath tests are one step closer to becoming a reality as a screening tool. Lung Cancer.

The tool has been used successfully To determine, in 84 patients, 16 organic compounds Volatile (Volatile Organic Compounds) carcinogenic associated Lung Cancersuch as aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acids and furans, some of which are compounds used in the production of household products such as furniture, carpets and hard floors.

“The test is expected to be used in the initial screening of Lung CancerAnd the But not for the final diagnosisAccording to study authors led by Peiyu Wang, MD, PhD, chair of social medicine and health at Peking University, in Beijing, China.

Although early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve patients’ survival Lung CancerAnd the Early detection is difficult due to the lack of clinical features and specific biomarkers. Dr. Wang and colleagues write that annual CT scans are expensive and involve radiation exposure.

Breathing tests are a promising method for detection and examination Lung Cancer. It has been under study for years, and in 2014, researchers from Belgium published a review in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, to document the use of VOC As diagnostic or early prognostic biomarkers of mesothelioma.

Respiration vital signs Lung Cancer that were identified in several studies were highly heterogeneous Because of different sample collection methods, different patient conditions, test environments, and methods of analysis. As a result, there are currently no breath test To detect Lung CancerDr. Wang said in an interview.

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Regarding its possibilities as a screening tool,”Doctors may offer this test to people at high risk, such as elderly smokers or people with suspicious symptoms. It can also be offered to young people with subjective or objective needs to detect Lung Cancer. Since the incidence of lung cancer in young non-smoking women is increasing, The test can be a good way to detect lung cancer in this populationDr. Wang said.

After adjusting for age, gender, smoking and comorbidities, the researchers found elevated levels of 16 organic compounds volatile in patients with Lung Cancer. Diagnostic model that included all 16 organic compounds The volatiles achieved an area under the curve of 0.952, a sensitivity of 89.2%, a specificity of 89.1%, and an accuracy of 89.1% in diagnosing Lung Cancer. Eight Included Model organic compounds The main volatiles achieved an area under the curve of 0.931, a sensitivity of 86.0%, a specificity of 87.2%, and an accuracy of 86.9%.

After selection 28 organic compounds volatile as candidates By reviewing the literature, Dr. Wang and colleagues conducted a prospective study from September 1 to December 31, 2020, Using a high-pressure photon ionization mass spectrometer (HPPI-TOFMS) to assess its ability to diagnose Lung Cancer. The validation study included 157 patients with . Lung Cancer (median age: 57.0 years; 54.1% women) and 368 volunteers (median age: 44.5 years; 31.3% women).

External verification confirmed the good performance of these biomarkers in detecting Lung CancerThis helped resolve the heterogeneity between published studies by creating both 16 ., the researchers said organic compounds volatile like 8 organic compounds Volatile material detection Lung Cancer.

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The book mentioned that There is a huge gap between breath test research and clinical practice for lung cancer detection and screening. Although 16 organic compounds Validated volatiles, especially aldehydes and hydrocarbons, have shown the potential to enhance this detection strategy, and further scientific studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying organic compounds volatile Lung Cancer specified.

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