According to the United Nations, for land to remain habitable “change must be now”

Rapid shift to renewable energy, change of consumption habits and application of new technologies These are some of the radical changes to mitigate climate change that scientists from around the world analyzed in the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), while warning that we can still “ensure a habitable future”.

“The IPCC report is strong evidence that we have great potential to mitigate climate change. The time to act is now. We have the tools and knowledge to reduce global warming and ensuring a livable future,” the organization’s president, Hosung Lee, said today during a virtual press conference.

After long negotiations that lasted two days longer than expected, the committee agreed in the past hours on a summary of the decision-makers warning of this. By 2050 we should abandon coal, reduce oil use by at least 60%and 70% gas until the temperature is not more than +1.5 ° C.

For the first time in the history of the IPCC, the document includes chapters on the social aspects of mitigation, Consumption patterns and technological developmentthey explained to blame Argentine researchers Gabriel Blanco and Walter Pingo, who are co-authors. said Blanco, an engineer and professor at the National University of the Provincial Center of Buenos Aires (Unicen).

“A large part of the planet lives below the poverty line“But there’s another big chunk consuming unnecessary things,” explained the researcher, lead author and coordinator of the report, who in recent weeks has participated in marathon sessions to review the document line by line.

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According to the United Nations, if the The world population continues to grow as expected and reaches 9.6 billion in 2050, we may need roughly the equivalent of three planets To obtain the natural resources needed to maintain the current lifestyle. This new report is the third installment of the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and complements documents already published in August 2021 and February 2022, in which the physical underpinnings and impacts of climate change were addressed.

Regarding solutions to mitigate global warming, the document reviews various actions and tools, among them The need to quickly replace fossil fuels with renewable energies, such as wind energy or solar energy, and it is suggested that the electricity be consumed as much as possible. Blanco said in an interview with Telephone.

However, experts warn that There are still countries that have difficulties getting electricity, so they warn of the gaps that need to be filledThe engineer emphasized, “It is clear that developing countries and those called least developed countries need support in financial matters to begin with, in technological matters, and in strengthening their technical and institutional capabilities.”

The report also analyzes the role of New technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but it is indicated that they are unable to cope with the continuous increase in the production and consumption of goods and services. Likewise, experimental technological advances, such as capturing carbon from the air, have been considered, although “it is not yet known whether they can generate other problems and they have not finished tackling sustainable development,” Blanco noted.

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At the same time, The document “reviews the role of technology in human development, We agree that not everything is an innovation in technology,” he said blame Walter Bing, agronomist and physician in agroecology, sociology, and sustainable rural development.

The text highlights the importance Social innovation that proposes new forms of management aimed at improving living conditions Population and the role of agroecology and self-production of food as an alternative to facing food crises. “Countries do not need to invest a lot, but to bring about a change in human behavior in the use of energy. That would save a lot, whether at the level of domestic consumption, at the social level or even at the industrial level,” said a professor at the National University of General Sarmiento who participated in Report as lead author.

Regarding the potential for achieving the goals set by the Paris Agreement, in particular keeping the temperature below 1.5°C of warming, the report throws a shocking number: if all the facilities associated with the exploitation of oil, natural gas and coal continue to emerge. used until it reaches its useful life, Without new incorporations, the 1.5 °C threshold would be exceeded. “What is to be expected is complex,” Blanco said, stressing that it is a challenge that involves thinking about “all the positive things that the required transformations will bring.”

“Producing energy using other resources can create jobs, improve air and water quality, and improving countries’ technological development and food production.”

Meanwhile, Pengue cautioned, “Change must be now. If we stop the ball and start implementing all that is available in scientific-technological knowledge, it is very likely that we will be able to hit the aberration.”

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The IPCC assessment cycle will be completed in October of this year with a synthesis report that brings together the contributions of the three working groups and will be the latest document for the global scientific community that will frame the next Consortium. The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (COP 27), to be held in Egypt in November, also published Telephone.

Freddie Dawson

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